Tetanus is a bacterial disease that can
affect most animals. Horses are particularly susceptible because
of their environment and tendency to incur injuries. Sadly, infected
horses and ponies usually die or require euthanasia.
What causes tetanus?
Tetanus is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetanii which
can be found in soil and droppings just about everywhere. It survives
in the environment for long periods of time. It enters the body
through wounds, particularly puncture wounds if the wound is dirty.
Puncture wounds on the sole of the foot are common sites of infection.
Infection can be acquired via the intestines, after eating contaminated
soil or droppings, through gastric or intestinal ulcers. In foals,
infection can occur via the umbilicus (navel). The tetanus bacteria
do not need oxygen (they are classified as ‘anaerobic’ bacteria)
and multiply rapidly in the damaged tissues at the site of the injury.
They produce a toxin (tetanus toxin) and it is this potent neurotoxin
that causes the classical signs of tetanus.
What are the symptoms?
Tetanus toxin attacks nerves controlling the muscles of the body.
This causes progressively worsening muscular stiffness and spasm.
The affected horse will become stiff and have difficulty moving and eating.
The third eyelid (membrana nictitans, a membrane which can be easily seen
at the inner corner of the eye) starts to protrude across the eye, particularly
if the horse is startled. The tail is often held out straight and
the horse develops an anxious expression because of facial muscle spasm.
Any stimulus such as loud sound, bright light or touch can exacerbate
the signs. The horse may sweat. In advanced cases the horse
will collapse with spasms, convulsions and death from respiratory failure.
Can tetanus be treated?
Most cases of tetanus ultimately result in death of the affected animal.
If diagnosed early, treatment is aimed at destroying the bacteria so that
no more toxin is produced and reducing the effects of the toxin that has
already been produced. Large doses of antibiotics, usually penicillin,
are used in conjunction with Tetanus Antitoxin injected usually intravenously
and intramuscularly. If the horse is able to eat, food should be
offered at a height where it can easily reach it. In severe cases,
slinging may be necessary. Intravenous fluids and/or catheterization
of the bladder may also be necessary. Unfortunately, the chances
of recovery are extremely poor if such measures are necessary and euthanasia
on humane grounds is usually more appropriate.
How can tetanus be prevented?
Tetanus is an easily preventable disease. Vaccination with ‘tetanus
toxoid’ should be used for all horses and ponies. The initial
course consists of two injections given approximately four to six weeks
apart followed by boosters at two-year intervals.
Foals cannot respond to vaccine given before approximately four months
of age but should start a course of vaccine soon after this. As
protection before this age foals usually receive tetanus antitoxin soon
after birth. They also receive some protection via colostrum (first
milk) if the mare is well vaccinated.
Good first aid can help prevent tetanus. Wounds should be cleaned
as soon as they occur and steps should be taken to encourage drainage
of deeper injuries. Paddocks, stables and stable yards should be kept
safe, clean and clear of dangerous items such as old tractor parts, corrugated
iron sheets and building materials that may cause injury.
The material contained in this website is presented for information purposes
only . The material is in no way intended to replace professional veterinary
care or attention from a professional veterinary surgeon.
The advice given in any of our web pages cannot be used as the basis
for a diagnosis or choice of treatment.
Clyde Vet Group advises that you should always consult a veterinary surgeon
about any queries with animals under your care.